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Audio Description (Video Description) on TV

25 to 60July 1, 2012 marked the date for reinstatement of the mandate for video description in the USA!  This page is updated regularly as we learn new information.  (Page last updated March 22, 2015)

Pointer COMING JULY 1, 2015:  Video Description Mandate Expands From 25 Top Markets to 60New Mar 10
and The History Channel replaces Nickolodeon as now required to offer Video Description

Listen to a 9-minute audio on
Video Description for Television,
or listen to the full 24-minute Podcast on
Audio Description:  Where and How?

My wife is blind, and the value of video description can not be overstated.
Video description takes television and movies to a new level
for people who can't see, and for those of us trying to act as their eyes.
I can't find the words to thank you for your time and fine work.

- Mark Bost, Sterling VA, November 2013

Video Described Shows

If a reasonably accessible schedule of described programs is available, we provide a link labeled Schedule! below.  If there is a phone number available for specific questions about video description for a particular network, we list it.  Remember, some of these are for NEW SEASON only, so repeats might not have description.  If a series which was previously described at least one season has ended, it is listed separately.  Repeats may or may not occur, and perhaps on a different network.  A periodic check on current series was done on March 22, 2015.  Please report errors to the Webmaster!

Schedule Link, Contact#
Series - Current
(newly discovered ones highlighted)
Series - Previous
(may or may not repeat)
B R O A D C A S T   N E T W O R K S
ABC black-ish, Fresh Off the Boat, Mistresses, Modern Family, Motive, Nashville, Rookie Blue, Shark Tank, The Goldbergs, The Middle, The Quest.  The following show may vary by market Saturday morning:  Jack Hanna's Wild Countdown. Back in the Game, Happy Endings, Don’t Trust the B---- in Apt. 23, Last Man Standing, Secret Millionaire, Selfie, Suburgatory, Super Fun Night, The Neighbors
CSI, Criminal Minds, NCIS, NCIS Los Angeles, The Big Bang Theory.  The following shows may vary by market on Saturday mornings:  Lucky Dog; Dr Chris, Pet Vet; The Henry Ford's Innovation Nation; Recipe Rehab; All In With Laila Ali; and Game Changers with Kevin Frazier.
(Need to look for AD Logo)
Bob's Burgers, Bones, Brooklyn Nine-Nine, Empire, Family Guy, Gotham, Hell's Kitchen, Hotel Hell, MasterChef, MasterChef Junior, New Girl, The Following, The Last Man on Earth, The Mindy Project, The Simpsons
NOTE:  Backstrom has been removed because we can't verify AD, even though Fox continues to list it.
24: Live Another Day, Almost Human, American Dad (moved to TBS July 2014), Cosmos: A Spacetime Odyssey, Dads, Fringe, Gang Related, Glee, Gracepoint, Kitchen Nightmares (possibility of returning), Mulaney, Raising Hope, Rake, The Cleveland Show
About a Boy, American Ninja Warrior, Chicago Fire, Chicago PD, Crossing Lines, Law and Order SVU, Grimm, State of Affairs 30 Rock, Animal Practice, Betty White's Off Their Rockers (moved to Lifetime - don't know about AD), Community (still airs but description dropped), Crossbones, Deception, Do No Harm, Go On,  Growing Up Fisher, Guys With Kids, Ironside, Parenthood, Parks and Recreation, Saving Hope, Sean Saves the World, The Michael J Fox Show, The Office, Up All Night, Whitney
[not mandated by law]
Offers description of many children's shows and some adult programming, including The Roosevelts and Downton Abbey, Latino Americans, Masterpiece Mystery's Miss Marple, Penguins: Spy in the Huddle, Secrets of the Dead.  No known list on the PBS website exists; we continue to work on our contacts there!  
N O N B R O A D C A S T   N E T W O R K S
(i.e., Available via Cable or Satellite)
Disney Channel
Austin & Ally (ending 2015), Doc McStuffins, Dog With a Blog, Girl Meets World, Gravity Falls (on XD), Henry Hugglemonster, Jake and the Neverland Pirates, Jessie (ending by early 2016), KC Undercover, Little Einsteins, Liv and Maddie, Sofia the First A.N.T. Farm, Fish Hooks, Good Luck Charlie, Mickey Mouse Clubhouse, Phineas and Ferb (*), Shake It Up, Wander Over Yonder (*)
* = moved to Disney XD mid 2014, description status unknown
The History Channel
[mandate begins July 1, 2015]
[mandate ends July 1, 2015]
Bubble Guppies, Dora the Explorer, Max and Ruby, Mike the Knight (on Nick Jr), PAW Patrol, Peppa Pig, Peter Rabbit, SpongeBob SquarePants, Team Umizoomi, Wallykazam Go Diego Go, The Fairly OddParents (unknown which others are not current...)
[not mandated by law]
Some movies are reportedly shown with their description tracks  
Schedule!(but you must look for DVS, not SAP, in the listings)
American Dad (starting here July 2014, but description status unknown); Reruns:  Family Guy, The Big Bang Theory; and some movies Tyler Perry's For Better or Worse, Tyler Perry's House of Payne
[not mandated by law]
404 885-5535, option 2
Offers description of numerous movies; to hear the current month's schedule, call 404 885-5535, option 2  
Schedule! (but you must look for DVS, not SAP, in the listings)
Reruns:  Castle, Hawaii Five-O, Law & Order; and some movies The Closer
Dig (10-part series started March 2015), Graceland, Royal Pains, Playing House, Satisfaction, Sirens, Suits; plus reruns for CSI, Law & Order: SVU, Modern Family, NCIS, NCIS LA Benched, Burn Notice, Common Law, Covert Affairs, Necessary Roughness, Psych, Rush, White Collar
Pointer Master Schedule of Described Shows (except PBS) by Sebastian Andrade-Miles and M Lutz Pointer
Or use the AFB's Described TV Listings service
You can also be informed of described shows via NFB's Newsline service

Notes:  Any network may also choose to provide description for selected movies.  Please notify the webmaster of additional series that you find described or schedules exclusively for described shows.

How Do I Receive Video Description?

The bottom line is that there is no single standardized method for receiving description, but most systems rely on the Second Audio Program, or SAP, facility.  We rely on user experience; so if you have been able to receive audio description, please write the webmaster (via the link at the bottom of this page) and tell us your experience, including HOW you receive your signal (i.e., which cable company and cable box), what settings you use, what TV you have, and your location.

You may wish to also note that there is a conflict between the use of the Second Audio Program (SAP) channel for description versus Spanish Language in the USA.  The "plan" is to carry description on its own audio channel in the future (i.e., not using the SAP facility), but we are a long way off from equipment standardization in this area.  The FCC concedes this conflict of legacy equipment in paragraphs 28-33 of its Report and Order and gives local stations leeway on which signal to pass, until such time as multiple audio channels are readily available to end users.  [As of July 2014, there is no plan in the works to utilize additional audio channels.  SAP appears to be "it" for the foreseeable future...]

Who Must Provide Video Description?

Currently, ABC, CBS, NBC, Fox, USA, the Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, TNT, and TBS are each required to provide 50 hours of video-described prime time or children's programming per calendar quarter.  PBS and TCM voluntarily provide description.  Whether or not their "description track" or Secondary Audio Program (SAP) is available to you is a different question.

Local Stations:  Officially, the FCC's mandate only applies to the top 25 markets New  This changes to the top 60 markets on July 1, 2015!  (Check the list of the top 60 markets.)  Outside of those markets, the requirement to pass along the description is voluntary at the present time ... but CALL your provider for help anyway!  Many of them supply it regardless of the market.  In fact, according to the FCC, although only ABC, CBS, Fox, and NBC affiliates located in the top 25 markets (60 after July 1, 2015) must provide video description, any broadcast station, regardless of its market size, that is affiliated or otherwise associated with any television network, must pass through video description when the network provides it (which is essentially always done), if the station has the technical capability necessary to do so**, and that technical capability is not being used for another purpose related to the programming (for instance, Spanish language).

Satellite providers (Dish Network and DirecTV) must pass through SAP for the top five non-terrestrial networks Nick, Disney, TBS, TNT, and USA regardless of a subscriber's location. However in the cases where a local affiliate of a terrestrial network (i.e., a local station affiliated with a network like ABC, picked up and fed as a convenience to subscribers in the area) is not broadcasting SAP, the satellite provider is not required to pass along the SAP from the stations' networks since the satellite provider gets the signal from local stations.  If the local affiliates are broadcasting video description, the satellite companies must pass that signal on to subscribers if they have the technical capability to do so**.

Cable Companies (like Comcast or Time Warner) must pass along description from the cable stations (like USA and TNT), as long as they have over 50,000 subscribers.  If any local affiliate (a station picked up and passed along by the cable company) is broadcasting SAP, then they must pass that signal on to subscribers if they have the technical capability to do so**.

NOTE:  Lots of people are reporting success after contacting their local cable or satellite provider for help!  PLEASE CALL THEM FOR ASSISTANCE.  If they are not cooperative or unsuccessful in resolving your situation, you can tell them you will be filing a complaint with the FCC that they will have to answer; and if they still don't resolve your problem, then file the complaint (link below)!

Here's another approach offered on our list server in Dec '14:

... since 2012 when VD was mandated, I personally contacted all my local affiliates.  CBS had VD enabled since I knew about it, and that goes for PBS as well, but I had to personally contact my ABC, FOX, and NBC affiliates to get VD enabled and working without glitches.  Thankfully the people I E-mailed were quite nice and willing to work with me to work out all the kinks in the system.  Before I contacted these local affiliates though, VD was either hit or miss, or nonexistent entirely.

I primarily used: to contact the person or people in charge of the closed captioning concerns, and they usually know what to do, or to which department to transfer these requests, though it does take a bit of explanation. It would be easier if you knew some of the technical bits behind switching to the VD feed, but explaining yourself in a polite manner does the trick. Also, an explanation of Video Description, along with who provides it, wouldn't go amiss.

Hope these tips will help you.


** Reference FCC Report and Order 11-126 paragraphs 23-27, where technical capability to do so is defined as having "virtually all necessary equipment and infrastructure to do so, except for items that would be of minimal cost."  These five FCC paragraphs, particularly paragraph 27, demonstrate a minimal tolerance for excuses in this area, especially over time.

Accessible Billing Statements From Cable Providers

We have been asked to include the following information here.  If you have additions or updates, please send them to the webmaster using the link at the bottom of the page.

Links of Interest

Another Option

There is a product called TV Speak, by Code Factory, which allows you to access the SAP channel sound via your PC without a TV.  User Sam Joehl has provided the following helpful information in September 2012:

The program is self-voicing so all functions of the interface speak and no screen reader is required within the application.  Users can nonvisually turn on and off the secondary audio.  The drawback that I have found with the current version of TVSpeak is that it appears to only work with NTSC tuner cards to receive over-the-air [OTA] broadcasts.  It did not even detect my Ceton tuner card, so it was not a solution that worked for me.  It is a solution that would work for users receiving OTA broadcasts.

Historical Info on Video Description (Pre-2012)

CAUTION:  Over time, links in this section will cease to work!

FCC Votes to Reinstate Video Description

On August 25, 2011, the FCC was finally able to vote (unanimously) to reinstate video description, effective July 1, 2012.  ABC, CBS, Fox, NBC, USA, the Disney Channel, Nickelodeon, TNT, and TBS are each required to provide 50 hours of video-described prime time or children's programming per calendar quarter.  Read Commissioner Clyburn's statement.  [deleted expired link].

NOTE:  The FCC's order applies (at this time) to the Top 25 TV Markets.  [deleted expired link]  The markets near the cutoff are:  St Louis (21), Portland OR (22), Charlotte (23), Pittsburgh (24), and Raleigh-Durham-Fayetteville (25).  Just over the line are Baltimore (26), Indianapolis (27, formerly 25), San Diego (28), and Nashville (29).  Indianapolis was the only area in the top 40 to move more than 1 position in the last year.  In six years, the top 60 markets must be covered, adding 10 more markets per year after that.

FCC Adopts Two Key Provisions

In early March, 2011, the FCC adopted two key provisions of the newly enacted 21st Century Communications & Video Accessibility Act without the need for further public discussion:

Further details are available at COAT.  At the same time, FCC Commissioner Michael Copps has praised CBS, FOX, PBS, TCM, and TNT for having voluntarily continued producing some shows with description even after the FCC's mandate was overturned in 2002. 

Video Description Legislation Becomes Law

President Obama Signing BillOn October 8, 2010, President Obama signed The 21st Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act. Earlier, the House passed HR 3101 (Twenty-first Century Communications and Video Accessibility Act of 2009) and the Senate passed a modified S 3304 (Equal Access to 21st Century Communications Act), which was closer to HR 3101 than their original version, then voted on some technical amendments (S 3828).  The House then voted on the modified Senate bill on September 28, 2010,which was subsequently signed by President Obama.  Passage of those bills required a lot of lobbying by members of COAT and others, so congratulations to all who helped!

The new law assures restoration of the FCC's authority to mandate video description, at least for the largest networks in the largest population areas (although not for one year, October 2011).  Now actually being able to receive description on your TV is a different story, but this is the start that we've been waiting EIGHT long years for!

Key Links

Summary (focusing on items affecting people who are blind or have low vision)

Video Description

• After 1 year, restores FCC rules requiring 4 hours per week of video description on 9 television channels (top 4 broadcast networks and top 5 cable channels) in the top 25 most populated markets.  [See UPDATE above]
• After 2 years, requires FCC to report to Congress on video description.
• After 4 years, permits the FCC to increase video description to 7 hours per week on 9 television channels.
• After 6 years, requires the FCC to apply the video description requirements to the top 60 most populated markets (not just the top 25 most populated markets).
• After 9 years, requires the FCC to report to Congress on the need for additional markets to carry video description.
• After 10 years, permits the FCC to expand video description to 10 new markets annually to achieve 100 percent nationwide coverage.


• Requires cable/satellite set-top box on-screen text menus and guides to be audibly accessible to individuals who are blind or have low vision, if achievable.
• To provide access to built-in closed captioning and video description features through a mechanism that is reasonably comparable to a button, key, or icon designated for activating the closed captioning or accessibility features.
• Requires devices designed to receive or play back video programming:
  1. to make controls of built-in functions accessible to and usable by individuals who are blind or have low vision, if achievable;
  2. to make controls of built-in functions accessible to and usable by individuals who are blind or have low vision through audio output;
  3. to provide access to built-in closed captioning and video description features through a mechanism that is reasonably comparable to a button, key, or icon designated for activating the closed captioning or accessibility features.

Emergency Information

• Requires video programming owners, providers, and distributors to make emergency information accessible to individuals who are blind or have low vision.

For more information, see the section-by-section summary of what S. 3304 (as amended) will do for us at

Watch this website for updates, and you can learn more at the Coalition of Organizations for Accessible Technology (COAT), the advocacy group that has made this possible.  The ACB and its representative Eric Bridges have contributed valuable input on the content of these bills which finally made it to congressional votes.


There is a long history on the subject of audio description for television, which is typically called video description.  The short version is that the FCC mandated it to start in April 2002, but their authority to do so was challenged successfully that same year, and for the next eight years measures got introduced in Congress to reinstate that authority, failing to get passed (probably because of tacked-on unrelated provisions) until the second half of 2010.

The only good news during those years was that some networks continued to produce audio description tracks for some of their shows (many shows for PBS, a few for CBS, for example).  With the conversion to digital television, the problem of receiving the description increased immeasurably.

Originally description was offered by a feature of analog televisions called Second Audio Program, or SAP.  By activating SAP via your remote, you could receive a secondary audio channel, replacing the primary one.  The audio channel could be a Spanish language translation of the audio, or it could be a version of the primary audio that had been modified with description overlaid.

With the transition to digital TV in June of 2009, reception issues got significantly worse.  While an audio channel was designated for audio description on digital TVs years ago, without the mandate for description the TV manufacturers did little or nothing to allow access to the channel, and very few TV networks have offered a digital audio description feed.

And then there is the question of the cable and satellite networks.  They need to take a network feed and rebroadcast it, then make it available through their own set-top boxes.  Historically this has required costly additional equipment, and implementation has been spotty.

So, to put it bluntly, we are in limbo regarding actually being able to receive description on TV!  Congress has finally given the FCC the authority to mandate it from broadcasters and (we believe) will require manufacturers to make the description channel easy to access on all new TVs at some point in the future, but we're not there yet.

The key committee working on these problems is the FCC Video Programming Accessibility Advisory Committee, co-chaired by Larry Goldberg of WGBH Media Access, and a key workgroup is the Video Description Pass-Thru Workgroup, co-chaired by Brad Hodges of the AFB.

In the meantime, you can check some of the following topics for reference.

For audio described television outside the USA, see our International page.